This content comes primarily from the notes of Mark Herbster (contributed to by Massi Pontil and John Shawe-Taylor) of University College London.
The Wisdom of the Crowds, or majority rule and related ideas tend to come up pretty often. Democracy is based (partly) on the majority of people being able to make the correct decision, often you might make decisions in a group of friends based on what the most people want, and it is logical to take into account popular opinion when reasoning on issues where you have imperfect information. On the other hand, of course, there is the Argumentum ad Populum fallacy which states that a popular belief isn’t necessarily true.
This is idea appears also in Applied Machine Learning – ensemble methods such as Random Forests, Gradient Boosted Models (especially XGBoost) and stacking of Neural Networks have resulted in overall more powerful models. This is especially notable in Kaggle competitions, where it is almost always an ensemble model (combination of models) that achieves the best score.…