CRL Task 2: Interventions – When and Where?

In the previous blog post we discussed the gorey details of generalised policy learning – the first task of CRL. We went into some very detailed mathematical description of dynamic treatment regimes and generalised modes of learning for data processing agents. The next task is a bit more conceptual and focuses on the question on how to identfy optimal areas of intervention in a system. This is clearly very important for an RL agent where its entire learning mechanism is based on these very interventions in some system with a feedback mechanism. Let’s begin!

This Series

  1. Causal Reinforcement Learning
  2. Preliminaries for CRL
  3. CRL Task 1: Generalised Policy Learning
  4. CRL Task 2: Interventions – When and Where?
  5. CRL Task 3: Counterfactual Decision Making
  6. CRL Task 4: Generalisability and Robustness
  7. (Coming soon) Task 5: Learning Causal Models
  8. (Coming soon) Task 6: Causal Imitation Learning
  9. (Coming soon) Wrapping Up: Where To From Here?

Interventions – When and Where?

By | July 6th, 2021|English, Level: intermediate|3 Comments

CRL Task 1: Generalised Policy Learning

In the previous blog post we developed some ideas and theory needed to discuss a causal approach to reinforcement learning. We formalised notions of multi-armed bandits (MABs), Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), and some causal notions. In this blog post we’ll finally get to developing some causal reinforcement learning ideas. The first of which is dubbed Task 1, for CRL can help solve. This is Generalised Policy Learning. Let’s begin.

This Series

  1. Causal Reinforcement Learning
  2. Preliminaries for CRL
  3. CRL Task 1: Generalised Policy Learning
  4. CRL Task 2: Interventions – When and Where?
  5. CRL Task 3: Counterfactual Decision Making
  6. CRL Task 4: Generalisability and Robustness
  7. (Coming soon) Task 5: Learning Causal Models
  8. (Coming soon) Task 6: Causal Imitation Learning
  9. (Coming soon) Wrapping Up: Where To From Here?

Generalised Policy Learning

Reinforcement learning typically involves learning and optimising some policy about how to interact in an environment to maximise some reward signal.…

By | July 1st, 2021|Background, English, Level: intermediate|3 Comments

Preliminaries for CRL

In the previous blog post we discussed and motivated the need for a causal approach to reinforcement learning. We argued that reinforcement learning naturally falls on the interventional rung of the ladder of causation. In this blog post we’ll develop some ideas necessary for understanding the material covered in this series. This might get quite technical, but don’t worry. There is still always something to take away. Let’s begin.

This Series

  1. Causal Reinforcement Learning
  2. Preliminaries for CRL
  3. CRL Task 1: Generalised Policy Learning
  4. CRL Task 2: Interventions – When and Where?
  5. CRL Task 3: Counterfactual Decision Making
  6. CRL Task 4: Generalisability and Robustness
  7. (Coming soon) Task 5: Learning Causal Models
  8. (Coming soon) Task 6: Causal Imitation Learning
  9. (Coming soon) Wrapping Up: Where To From Here?

Preliminaries

As you probably recall from high school, probability and statistics are almost entirely formulated on the idea of drawing random samples from an experiment. One imagines observing realisations of outcomes from some set of possibilities when drawing from an assortment of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) events.…

By | April 6th, 2021|Background, English, Level: Simple|5 Comments

Causal Reinforcement Learning: A Primer

As part of any honours degree at the University of Cape Town, one is obliged to write a thesis ‘droning’ on about some topic. Luckily for me, applied mathematics can pertain to pretty much anything of interest. Lo and behold, my thesis on merging causality and reinforcement learning. This was entitled Climbing the Ladder: A Survey of Counterfactual Methods in Decision Making Processes and was supervised by Dr Jonathan Shock.

In this series of posts I will break down my thesis into digestible blog chucks and go into quite some detail of the emerging field of Causal Reinforcement Learning (CRL) – which is being spearheaded by Elias Bareinboim and Judea Pearl, among others. I will try to present this in such a way as to satisfy those craving some mathematical detail whilst also trying to paint a broader picture as to why this is generally useful and important. Each of these blog posts will be self contained in some way.…

By | February 3rd, 2021|Background, English, Level: intermediate, Level: Simple|4 Comments

A simple introduction to causal inference

 

Introduction

Causal inference is a branch of Statistics that is increasing in popularity. This is because it allows us to answer questions in a more direct way than do other methods. Usually, we can make inference about association or correlation between a variable and an outcome of interest, but these are often subject to outside influences and may not help us answer the questions in which we are most interested.

Causal inference seeks to remedy this by measuring the effect on the outcome (or response variable) that we see when we change another variable (the ‘treatment’). In a sense, we are looking to reproduce the situation that we have when we do an designed experiment (with a ‘treated’ and a ‘control’ group). The goal here is to have groups that are otherwise the same (with regard to factors that might influence the outcome) but where one is ‘treated’ and the other is not.…

By | August 20th, 2020|English, Uncategorized|0 Comments