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## Automatic Differentiation

Much of this content is based on lecture slides from slides from Professor David Barber at University College London: resources relating to this can be found at: www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/D.Barber/brml

What is Autodiff?

Autodiff, or Automatic Differentiation, is a method of determining the exact derivative of a function with respect to its inputs. It is widely used in machine learning- in this post I will give an overview of what autodiff is and why it is a useful tool.

The above is not a very helpful definition, so we can compare autodiff first to symbolic differentiation and numerical approximations before going into how it works.

Symbolic differentiation is what we do when we calculate derivatives when we do it by hand, i.e. given a function $f$, we find a new function $f'$. This is really good when we want to know how functions behave across all inputs. For example if we had $f(x) = x^2 + 3x + 1$ we can find the derivative as $f'(x) = 2x + 3$ and then we can find the derivative of the function for all values of $x$.…

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## Captain Raymond Holt vs Claude Shannon

Overview

In this post I am going to introduce a pretty famous riddle, made popular recently by the police sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine as well as the idea of the entropy of a probability distribution, made popular by Claude Shannon. Then I am going to go through a solution that is presented in Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms (2), a brilliant book on the topic by the late David MacKay, as well as some intuitions from his lecture series on the topic. Hopefully, by the end of it, you will be familiar with another property of a probability distribution and be able to impress your friends with your riddle-solving abilities.

The Riddle

The riddle is presented by Captain Holt (pictured above) to his team of detectives as follows (1):

‘There are 12 men on an island, 11 weigh exactly the same amount, but 1 of them is slightly lighter or heavier: you must figure which.* The island has no scales, but there is a see-saw.

By | October 23rd, 2019|English, Fun|0 Comments
• The two types of averages that we usually focus on are the sample mean from a set of data and the expectation that comes from a probability distribution. For example if three men weigh 70kg, 80kg, and 90kg respectively then the sample mean of their weight is $\bar x = \frac{70+80+90}{3} = 80$. Alternatively, we might say that the arrival times of trains are exponentially distributed with parameter $\lambda = 3$ we can use the properties of the exponential distribution to find the mean (or expectation). In this case the mean is $\mu = \frac{1}{\lambda} = \frac{1}{3}$.